Coagulase - negative staphylococci : pathogenesis , occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and in
Staphylococcus haemolyticus is of increasing concern as a cause of several biofilm-associated infections, and today, it represents the second most common organism among clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci. However, little is known regarding the treatment of infections caused by these bacteria. In this study, we characterize the biofilm formed by S. haemolyticus strains isolated from bloodstream infections and assess in vitro the activity of rifampicin combined with daptomycin or tigecycline against bacteria growing in a biofilm. The results of our studies indicated that the majority (78 %) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains have the ability to form a biofilm in vitro. None of these strains carried icaADBC genes indicating that they form biofilm via ica-independent mechanisms. The molecular characterization of the biofilm showed that proteins are the predominant matrix component and play a major role in biofilm structure. Extracellular DNA and polysaccharides, other than polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, are also present in the biofilm matrix, but they play a minor role. The images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that most S. haemolyticus strains formed a dense biofilm with a low number of dead cells. In vitro study demonstrated excellent activity of tigecycline in combination with rifampicin against cell growth in the proteinous biofilm. The BIC (biofilm inhibitory concentration) value for tigecycline/rifampicin ranged from 0.062 to 1 µg/ml, whereas for daptomycin/rifampicin from 0.125 to 2 µg/ml. These results indicated that the tigecycline/rifampicin combination was more effective against ica-independent biofilm, formed by S. haemolyticus strains, than the daptomycin/rifampicin combination.