BACKGROUND Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is an effective and accepted management option for symptomatic uterine fibroids. This case report presents a complication following UAE and is followed by a review outlining the need to monitor quality of care for women who undergo this procedure. CASE A 37-year-old woman presented with fever and general malaise refractory to medical treatment 16 days after UAE was performed to treat a symptomatic fibroid. At hysterectomy, 20 days after UAE, a 10 cm necrotic and infected submucosal fibroid with cervicitis was identified. CONCLUSION Complications of UAE for treatment of fibroids will be minimized if patients are selected appropriately, if the procedure is performed correctly, and if outcomes, efficacy, and complication rates are monitored.