Improving intergroup relations through direct, extended and other forms of indirect contact

  title={Improving intergroup relations through direct, extended and other forms of indirect contact},
  author={John F. Dovidio and Anja Eller and Miles Hewstone},
  journal={Group Processes \& Intergroup Relations},
  pages={147 - 160}
The benefits of direct, personal contact with members of another group are well established empirically. This Special Issue complements that body of work by demonstrating the effects of various forms of indirect contact on intergroup attitudes and relations. Indirect contact includes (a) extended contact: learning that an ingroup member is friends with an outgroup member, (b) vicarious contact: observing an ingroup member interact with an outgroup member, and (c) imagined contact: imagining… Expand
Improving intergroup relations with extended and vicarious forms of indirect contact
Research in social psychology has provided impressive evidence that intergroup contact reduces prejudice. However, to the extent that strategies based on direct contact are sometimes difficult toExpand
An experimental comparison of direct and indirect intergroup contact
Abstract Indirect forms of intergroup contact, such as extended and vicarious contact, are thought to provide a promising alternative to direct contact, but very few studies have compared theExpand
When the direct route is blocked: The extended contact pathway to improving intergroup relations
Direct intergroup contact can be described as the “royal road” to reducing prejudice and intergroup conflict. Although direct contact with an outgroup member may be limited, a promising alternativeExpand
Comparing direct and indirect forms of intergroup contact in Cyprus
This thesis examines and compares the effectiveness of direct and indirect types of contact in leading to short- or longer-term prejudice-reducing outcomes in Cyprus. Chapter 1 provides a backgroundExpand
Intergroup contact through online comments: Effects of direct and extended contact on outgroup attitudes
Direct online contact improved attitudes toward both outgroups through positive and negative emotions, whereas extended online contact reducednegative emotions, improving attitudes towards undocumented immigrants. Expand
Indirect contact in social networks: Challenging common interpretations of the extended contact hypothesis
  • T. H. Stark
  • Psychology
  • Group Processes & Intergroup Relations
  • 2019
According to the extended contact hypothesis, direct intergroup contact is not necessary for prejudice reduction; it suffices to know that ingroup friends have outgroup friends. However, extendedExpand
Recent Developments in Intergroup Contact Research: Affective Processes, Group Status, and Contact Valence
What are the consequences of bringing people from diverse groups together? Does it enhance trust and goodwill, or does it lead to mistrust and hostility? More than 60 years ago, social scientistsExpand
Vicarious, extended and imagined intergroup contact: A review of interventions based on indirect contact strategies applied in educational settings
Although research has shown that interventions within educational contexts based on direct, face-to-face contact are effective in reducing prejudice, they may be difficult to implement. RecentExpand
Studying Positive and Negative Direct and Extended Contact: Complementing Self-Reports With Social Network Analysis
Social network analyses are applied to generate alternative contact parameters to demonstrate the value of social network analysis for examining the full complexity of contact including positive and negative forms of direct and extended contact. Expand
Intergroup Contact: An Integration of Social Psychological and Communication Perspectives
This chapter examines the literature on intergroup contact from a communication perspective. The basic idea of intergroup contact theory—that contact between groups reduces prejudice—is presented.Expand


Can imagined interactions produce positive perceptions? Reducing prejudice through simulated social contact.
The authors discuss empirical research supporting the imagined contact proposition and find it to be an approach that is at once deceptively simple and remarkably effective in encouraging more positive intergroup relations. Expand
A test of the extended intergroup contact hypothesis: the mediating role of intergroup anxiety, perceived ingroup and outgroup norms, and inclusion of the outgroup in the self.
This article documents the first test of Wright et al.'s model, which used structural equation modeling among two independent samples in the context of South Asian-White relations in the United Kingdom, and indicates that the four mediators operate concurrently rather than predicting one another. Expand
Intergroup contact theory.
  • T. Pettigrew
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annual review of psychology
  • 1998
The chapter proposes four processes: learning about the outgroup, changed behavior, affective ties, and ingroup reappraisal, and distinguishes between essential and facilitating factors, and emphasizes different outcomes for different stages of contact. Expand
The extended contact effect: Knowledge of cross-group friendships and prejudice.
The extended contact hypothesis proposes that knowledge that an in-group member has a close relationship with an out-group member can lead to more positive intergroup attitudes. Proposed mechanismsExpand
Reducing prejudice via direct and extended cross-group friendship
One of the most exciting developments in intergroup contact theory is the idea that a certain type of contact, cross-group friendship, might be particularly effective at reducing prejudice. In thisExpand
Effects of Direct and Indirect Cross-Group Friendships on Judgments of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland: The Mediating Role of an Anxiety-Reduction Mechanism
It is argued that emerging generalization hypotheses help to integrate both cognition and affect and interpersonal and intergroup approaches to contact. Expand
Generalized Intergroup Contact Effects on Prejudice
The intergroup contact hypothesis is tested with self-reports of 3,806 survey respondents in seven 1988 national probability samples of France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and West Germany. WithExpand
A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory.
The meta-analysis finds that intergroup contact typically reduces intergroup prejudice, and this result suggests that contact theory, devised originally for racial and ethnic encounters, can be extended to other groups. Expand
Independent benefits of contact and friendship on attitudes toward homosexuals among authoritarians and highly identified heterosexuals
Although intergroup contact is generally associated with positive intergroup attitudes, little is known about whether individual differences moderate these relations, or how contact might operateExpand
Personalization and the Promise of Contact Theory
The article discusses theoretical issues regarding the generalization of positive intergroup contact. It contrasts the models of Brewer and Miller (1984), Hewstone and Brown (1986), and Gaertner andExpand