BACKGROUND A few case reports suggest that incretin-based therapies could improve psoriasis in patients with type 2 diabetes, the mechanism(s) of which remain unclear. OBJECTIVES To determine the effects after 16-20 weeks of treatment with a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogue on clinical severity and histopathological aspects of psoriasis in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to examine the presence of γδ T cells and the expression of interleukin (IL)-17 in psoriasis before and after treatment. METHODS Seven patients with type 2 diabetes and psoriasis were followed. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was measured at baseline (T0) and after 7 ± 1 (T1) and 18 ± 2 (T2) weeks' treatment with exenatide/liraglutide. The histopathological pattern of psoriasis, and flow cytometry and immunological data (γδ T-cell percentage and IL-17 expression) were obtained from psoriatic and control sites. RESULTS The mean PASI decreased from 12·0 ± 5·9 to 9·2 ± 6·4 (P = 0·04). Histological analysis showed a reduction in epidermal thickness after treatment. The dermal γδ T-cell percentage was higher in psoriatic lesions than in control specimens (P = 0·03), as was IL-17 expression (P = 0·018). A reduction of γδ T cells from 6·7 ± 4·5% to 2·7 ± 3·8% (P = 0·05) was demonstrated in the six patients with improved/unchanged PASI. A correlation between PASI and γδ T-cell percentage evolution during therapy (T2-T0) was noted (r = 0·894, P = 0·007). IL-17 was reduced in the four patients with the highest PASI reductions. CONCLUSIONS The administration of a GLP-1 analogue improved clinical psoriasis severity in patients with type 2 diabetes. This favourable outcome was associated with a decrease of dermal γδ T-cell number and IL-17 expression. Further studies are needed to establish long-term efficacy in (diabetic) patients with psoriasis.