Imprinting to chemical cues: the basis for home stream selection in salmon

@article{Scholz1976ImprintingTC,
  title={Imprinting to chemical cues: the basis for home stream selection in salmon},
  author={Allan T. Scholz and Ross M. Horrall and Jon C. Cooper and Arthur D. Hasler},
  journal={Science},
  year={1976},
  volume={192},
  pages={1247 - 1249}
}
Juvenile coho salmon were exposed to morpholine or phenethyl alcohol (p-alcohol) for 1 1/2 months and then released in Lake Michigan. During the spawning migration 18 months later, morpholine and p-alcohol were metered into separate streams, and the number of morpholine- and p-alcohol-exposed fish returning to each stream was determined. Seventeen other locations were also monitored. The majority of the fish exposed to morpholine were captured in the stream scented with morpholine and most fish… 
The use of chemical cues in the upstream migration of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum
TLDR
It is revealed that chemical cues are used by the salmon in their upstream migration and differential responses to current appear to serve in segregating fish imprinted to odours of different home streams.
Responses of Returning Adult Coho Salmon to Home Water and Population‐Specific Odors
TLDR
Evaluated by giving adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch a choice between home water and nonhome water in which juvenile coho Salmon of their population were held, the adult salmon preferred home water, lending support to the hypothesis that environmental odors are the primary stimulus attracting homing salmon.
Field test of the pheromone hypothesis for homing by pacific salmon
TLDR
Adult salmon returned to their release site rather than a hatchery containing both adult and juvenile salmon of their population, suggesting that local movements are not strongly influenced by siblings or other conspecifics.
Timing of imprinting to natural and artificial odors by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)
TLDR
The absence of presmolt learning in this study may be due, in part, to the stable environment and restrictions on migration associated with hatchery rearing.
Homing in Pacific salmon: mechanisms and ecological basis
  • DittmanQuinn
  • Environmental Science
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1996
TLDR
The mechanisms underlying all aspects of salmon homing are reviewed but the final, freshwater phase governed by olfactory recognition of homestream water is focused on.
Physiological Study on Imprinting and Homing Related Olfactory Functions in Salmon
TLDR
It is proposed that amino acids dissolved in the home stream water were possible home river substances for salmon and were proposed to be imprinted by site-specific odors associated with their home stream and adult salmon utilize these “odor” memories for homing.
Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)
TLDR
It is found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage, providing some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinted can occur in pink salmon prior to the parr-smolt transformation (PST).
Timing of imprinting to natura ~ and artificia ’ odors by coho saNmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch )
Juvenile salmon learn odors associated with their home stream before seaward migration and use these odor memories for homing as adults. Experimental evidence has indicated that this olfactory
The behavioural homing response of adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta to amino-acid profiles.
Adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta homing behaviour in a two-choice test tank (Y-maze) was monitored using a passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tag system in response to river-specific dissolved
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-8 OF 8 REFERENCES
Electroencephalographic Evidence for Retention of Olfactory Cues in Homing Coho Salmon
TLDR
Results indicate that olfactory information has been retained for 18 months, the period between smolting and the homeward migration.
Return of Silver Salmon, Oncorhynchus Kisutch (Walbaum) to Point of Release
TLDR
Silver salmon of the 1950 brood year were reared at the Soos Creek Hatchery until January 19, 1952, and adult salmon returning during the winter of 1953–1954 were examined for marks.
Discrimination of Stream Odors by Fishes and Its Relation to Parent Stream Behavior
TLDR
Preliminary tests with salmon proved that they can detect the stream odors, and that they were able to discriminate between them; it is postulated that the nature of the guiding odor must be such that it have meaning only for those salmon conditioned to it during their freshwater sojourn.
Homing of Artificially Imprinted Steelhead (Rainbow) Trout, Salmo gairdneri
Greater numbers of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to morpholine as fingerlings as compared to trout left unexposed to morpholine as fingerlings homed to a stream scented with this odor (17...
Experimental Confirmation of the Olfactory Hypothesis with Homing, Artificially Imprinted Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)
TLDR
To test the olfactory hypothesis of salmon homing, fingerling coho salmon were exposed to low concentrations of an odorous synthetic chemical, morpholine during presmolt and found to have the properties of a sniffer dog.
Electrophysiological Studies of Morpholine-Imprinted Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)
TLDR
Responses to morpholine were specific in that another chemical similar to it did not elicit responses, which support the olfactory hypothesis that sal...