Impoverished cue support enhances subsequent retention: Support for the elaborative retrieval explanation of the testing effect

  title={Impoverished cue support enhances subsequent retention: Support for the elaborative retrieval explanation of the testing effect},
  author={Shana K. Carpenter and Edward L. Delosh},
  journal={Memory \& Cognition},
In three experiments, we investigated the role of transfer-appropriate processing and elaborative processing in the testing effect. In Experiment 1, we examined whether the magnitude of the testing effect reflects the match between intervening and final tests by factorially manipulating the type of intervening and final tests. Retention was not enhanced for matching, relative to mismatching, intervening and final tests, contrary to the transfer-appropriate-processing view. In Experiment 2, we… 
Cue strength as a moderator of the testing effect: the benefits of elaborative retrieval.
  • Shana K. Carpenter
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2009
Results indicate that the activation of elaborative information-which would occur to a greater extent during testing than restudying--may be one mechanism that underlies the testing effect.
Transfer-appropriate processing in the testing effect
The present experiment investigated transfer-appropriate processing in the testing effect using semantic and orthographic cues to evoke conceptual and data-driven processing, respectively, to suggest that theTesting effect could potentially be caused by the episodic retrieval processes in a final memory test overlapping more with the episodi retrieval process in a review test than with the encoding operations performed during restudy.
The Role of Transfer-Appropriate Processing in the Testing Effect
The results suggest that the testing effect is greater to the degree that the type of retrieval processing involved in the final test overlaps with thetype of processing done during review.
Mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice at short retention intervals
This study focused on potential test-induced retention benefits for brief retention intervals on the order of minutes and tens of seconds in a bifurcated item-distribution model.
Does the benefit of testing depend on lag, and if so, why? Evaluating the elaborative retrieval hypothesis
Across two experiments, final-test performance was greater following practice testing than following restudy only, and this memorial advantage was greater with long-lag than with short-lag practice testing, which provided consistent evidence for the ERH.
The testing effect and the retention interval: questions and answers.
The results strengthen the evidence for the involvement of different processes underlying the effects of studying and testing, and support the hypothesis that the testing effect is grounded in retrieval-related processes.
The Influence of Retrieval Practice Versus Delayed Judgments of Learning on Memory: Resolving a Memory-Metamemory Paradox.
Differences in the dynamics of retrieval for practice tests versus delayed JOLs are responsible for the memory-metamemory paradox, and participants spent less time to make J OLs than to retrieve responses.
Feedback at Test Can Reverse the Retrieval-Effort Effect
Replicating prior research, it is found that on an initial delayed test, recall of to-be-learned items was better following difficult than easy practice, consistent with a distribution-based interpretation of how feedback at test modifies recall performance.
The testing effect in immediate recognition: tests of the episodic context account
ABSTRACT Three experiments explored when testing produces immediate advantages over restudying in old/new recognition tests. According to the episodic context account, the study context is reinstated


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The results reject the hypothesis that a successful retrieval is beneficial only to the extent that it provides another study experience, as performing a memory retrieval (TTST condition) led to better performance than pure study (pure ST condition).
Spacing effects on cued-memory tests depend on level of processing.
In the reported experiments, the spacing of repetitions improved performance on cued-memory tests (a frequency judgment test and graphemic cued-recall test) when items were studied in an intentional
Incongruous item generation effects: a multiple-cue perspective.
Results supported a multiple-cue account of facilitated recall for incongruous item generation, consistent with traditional conceptualizations of memory, and contemporary distinctions between cue-target relational and item-specific processing.
Incongruous Item Generation Effects: A Multiple-Cue Perspective
In a series of studies, generation effects were obtained under encoding conditions designed to induce incongruous, unrelated item generation. Experiments 1 and 2, using free- and cued-recall
Altering memory through recall: The effects of cue-guided retrieval processing
Delayed recall was facilitated primarily when the cue on the immediate test was from the same level as the Cue on the delayed test, which suggests that immediate cued-recall produces an elaboration of an existing memory representation that is closely tied to the type of cue used on the immediately test.
Encoding Variability and Cuing in Generative Processing
Abstract A multiple-cue hypothesis was proposed by Soraci et al. (1994) to account for incongruous item generation effects. They reported a positive relationship between the number of cues at
Role of Distinctive Processing during Retrieval
Encoding tasks that engage both distinctive and organizational processing produce superior recall relative to tasks that engage only one type of processing (e.g., Hunt & Einstein, 1981). In 1993,
The Role of Distinctive Perceptual Information in Memory: Studies of the Testing Effect
Abstract This paper examines the role of orthographic-to-phonological mapping in memory. Specifically, we consider the hypothesis that distinctive orthographic-to-phonological mapping (Hirshman and