Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention.

@article{Blackwell2007ImplicitTO,
  title={Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention.},
  author={Lisa S. Blackwell and Kali Trzesniewski and C S Dweck},
  journal={Child development},
  year={2007},
  volume={78 1},
  pages={
          246-63
        }
}
Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory) predicted a flat trajectory. A mediational model including learning goals, positive beliefs about effort, and causal attributions and strategies was… 
An evaluation of an intervention to change first-year psychology students’ theory of intelligence
Some people hold an entity theory of intelligence: they think of intelligence as innate. In contrast, others hold an incremental theory, believing that intelligence can be changed. Previous research
The relations between implicit intelligence beliefs, autonomous academic motivation, and school persistence intentions: a mediation model
This study attempts to test a model in which the relation between implicit theories of intelligence and students’ school persistence intentions are mediated by intrinsic, identified, introjected, and
Testing a motivational model of achievement: How students’ mathematical beliefs and interests are related to their achievement
Blackwell et al. (Child Development 78(1):246–263, 2007) tested a motivational model of achievement in which an incremental theory of intelligence leads to learning goals and positive effort beliefs,
Chinese mindset: theories of intelligence, goal orientation and academic achievement in Hong Kong students
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between theories of intelligence and goal orientations, and their joint connections to students’ academic achievement in the Chinese
Longitudinal changes in college math students’ implicit theories of intelligence
This study examined changes over time in implicit theories of intelligence and their relationships to help-seeking and academic performance. College algebra students completed questionnaires during
Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review
TLDR
The results indicated that incremental theorists are more likely to have higher grades in specific subjects (verbal and quantitative) and in overall achievement and that ITI could have in different academic outcomes.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 67 REFERENCES
Children's beliefs about intelligence and school performance.
The study was designed, first, to explore associations among children's beliefs about intelligence and effort, goal orientations, self-reported learning strategies, and academic achievement.
Development of adolescents' self-perceptions, values, and task perceptions according to gender and domain in 7th- through 11th-grade Australian students.
  • H. Watt
  • Psychology
    Child development
  • 2004
TLDR
Self-perceptions and values declined through adolescence, and ratings about difficulty and effort required increased; gender differences favored boys for math and girls for English, with little evidence for gender intensification or gender convergence hypotheses.
Clarifying achievement goals and their impact.
TLDR
In 5 studies, including a longitudinal study in a difficult premed course, the authors show that the impact of learning and performance goals depends on how they are operationalized.
Middle school reform and early adolescent well-being: The good news and the bad
Earlier research provided evidence that positive interpersonal relationships and the emphasis on understanding, mastery, and challenge (the mastery goal structure) deteriorated when students moved
Negative Effects of Traditional Middle Schools on Students' Motivation
We discuss the decline in early adolescents' academic motivation after the transition to middle grade schools and review work on how school and classroom environments in traditional middle grade
What Are We Doing to Early Adolescents? The Impact of Educational Contexts on Early Adolescents
For some children, the early adolescent years mark the beginning of a downward spiral in school-related behaviors and motivation that often lead to academic failure and school dropout. Although these
Conceptions of ability as stable and self-evaluative processes: a longitudinal examination.
TLDR
Over time, conceiving of ability as stable to external forces, particularly in the academic domain, appeared to heighten the importance placed on competence, performance knowledge, preference for challenge, perceptions of competence, and self-enhancing attributions.
Implicit Self-Theories in the Academic Domain: Implications for Goal Orientation, Attributions, Affect, and Self-Esteem Change
This study supported hypotheses derived from Dweck's model about the implications of two implicit self-theories: Entity theorists believe their intelligence is fixed, whereas Incremental theorists
The Role of Protective Factors in Supporting the Academic Achievement of Poor African American Students During the Middle School Transition
In this study of 62 African American families living in poverty, we examined the main and interactive effects of psychological, family, and school factors on students' grade point average across the
...
...