Implicit Theories Individual Differences in the Likelihood and Meaning of Dispositional Inference

  title={Implicit Theories Individual Differences in the Likelihood and Meaning of Dispositional Inference},
  author={Carol S. Dweck and Ying-yi Hong and Chi-yue Chiu},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={644 - 656}
In their research, the authors have identified individuals who believe that a particular trait (intelligence, personality, or moral character) is a fixed disposition (entity theorists) and have contrasted them with those who believe the trait to be a malleable quality (incremental theorists). Research shows that an entity theory consistently predicts (a) global dispositional inferences for self and other; even in the face of limited evidence, as well as (b) an over reliance on dispositional… 

Lay dispositionism and implicit theories of personality.

Five studies explored the relation between the practices indicative of lay dispositionism and people's implicit theories about the nature of personal attributes and predicted that those who believed that personal attributes are malleable made stronger future behavioral predictions and made stronger trait inferences from behavior.

Person Theories: Their Temporal Stability and Relation to Intertrait Inferences

It is found that holding the belief that personality is malleable rather than fixed at the time of inferences is associated with less extreme inferences involving semantically related (but not unrelated) traits.

Children's thinking about traits: implications for judgments of the self and others.

Results suggest that beliefs about the stability of traits may serve an important role in thinking about and functioning within the academic and sociomoral domains, and in the academic domain with an emphasis on the evaluative meanings of performance outcomes.

Implicit Theories and Their Role in Judgments and Reactions: A Word From Two Perspectives

In this target article, we present evidence for a new model of individual differences in judgments and reactions. The model holds that people's implicit theories about human attributes structure the

Implicit Theories: Consequences for Social Judgments of Individuals ☆

Abstract The implications of implicit theories for social information processing were examined. Implicit theory proposes that entity theorists see others' traits as fixed and stable, whereas

Implicit Theories and Evaluative Processes in Person Cognition

Abstract Evaluative processes are often considered to be a cornerstone of social perception. The present study seeks to understand an individual-difference factor that is linked to evaluative

Lay Theories and Evaluation-Based Organization of Impressions: An Application of the Memory Search Paradigm

People may believe that personal attributes are fixed entities that cannot be changed (hold an entity theory). Alternatively, they may believe that qualities of a person are malleable (hold an

Cultural Similarities and Differences in Social Inference: Evidence from Behavioral Predictions and Lay Theories of Behavior

The authors investigated social inference practices of Koreans and Americans in two novel domains: behavioral predictions and folk theories of behavior. When dispositional and situational inferences



Children's implicit personality theories as predictors of their social judgments.

Differences in the social judgment processes of entity and incremental theorists are discussed, and implications for issues (such as stereotyping) are explored.

Levels of Inference in Dispositional Judgment

This article distinguishes between two levels of inference regarding person causes of behavior—one leading from behavior to proximal, behavior-specific causes and the other leading to more distal,

A conditional approach to dispositional constructs: the local predictability of social behavior.

Children judged to be aggressive or withdrawn were variable across situations in dispositionally relevant behaviors, but they diverged into relatively predictable aggressive and withdrawn actions in situations that required the social, self-regulatory, and cognitive competencies they lacked.

When are social judgments made? Evidence for the spontaneousness of trait inferences.

The results of two recall experiments indicate that subjects unintentionally made trait inferences at encoding, which suggests that attributions may be made spontaneously, as part of the routine comprehension of social events.

Person perception and attribution

Person perception is of great importance in everyday life and human science. Judgment of other people's characteristics and intentions is important for suc cessfully planning actions within a social

Differential contributions of linguistic factors to memory based ratings: Systematizing the systematic distortion hypothesis

The systematic distortion hypothesis, which is based on a general cognitive bias contention for memory-based ratings of persons, does not account for functional differences between different types of

A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality

Past work has documented and described major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior: the mastery-oriented and the helpless patterns. In this article, we present a research-based model that

Intuitive Perceptions of Change

Luchins' classic study on impression formation has contributed to the widespread belief in the predominance of stable, trait like impressions in the person perception process. The present replication