Implicit Self-Esteem in Japan: Name Letters and Birthday Numbers

  title={Implicit Self-Esteem in Japan: Name Letters and Birthday Numbers},
  author={Shinobu Kitayama and Mayumi Karasawa},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={736 - 742}
Japanese studies have repeatedly failed to obtain any explicit tendency to enhance self-esteem. In two studies, the authors attempted an implicit assessment of positive feelings attached to Japanese selves and found evidence for such feelings. Study 1 examined preference for Japanese alphabetical letters and found that letters included in one's own name were significantly better liked than the remaining ones. Further, an especially strong preference was expressed by male respondents for the… 
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