Implicit Racial Bias and Police Use of Lethal Force: Justifiable Homicide or Potential Discrimination?

  title={Implicit Racial Bias and Police Use of Lethal Force: Justifiable Homicide or Potential Discrimination?},
  author={James H. Price and Erica Payton},
  journal={Journal of African American Studies},
Implicit bias seems to be a universal primitive function of all brains. Police officers have been found to have near universal implicit bias against racial and ethnic minorities. This does not mean that discriminatory behavior (explicit bias) has to inevitably follow. Reports of police use of lethal force have found that African Americans are far more likely to be shot and killed than their numbers in the population would predict. The actual number of individuals killed by police is not certain… 
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