Implication of external price referencing and parallel trade on pharmaceutical expenditure: indirect evidence from lower-income European countries.

@article{Elek2017ImplicationOE,
  title={Implication of external price referencing and parallel trade on pharmaceutical expenditure: indirect evidence from lower-income European countries.},
  author={P{\'e}ter Elek and Eszter Tak{\'a}cs and Gergő Mer{\'e}sz and Zolt{\'a}n Kal{\'o}},
  journal={Health policy and planning},
  year={2017},
  volume={32 3},
  pages={349-358}
}
External price referencing (EPR) is applied more and more frequently worldwide by payers to control pharmaceutical prices. Together with the parallel trade of pharmaceuticals, EPR may result in lower pharmaceutical prices in higher-income countries and higher prices in lower-income countries, which implies that pharmaceutical expenditure grows more rapidly in the latter than in the former group. Our objective was to assess this hypothesis. We used hierarchical linear models on country-level… CONTINUE READING
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