Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Musculoskeletal conditions represent one of the largest causes of years lived with disability in high-income economies. These conditions are predominantly managed in primary care settings, and yet, there is a paucity of evidence on which approaches work well in increasing the uptake of best practice and in closing the evidence-to-practice gap. Increasingly, musculoskeletal models of service delivery (as components of models of care) such as integrated care, stratified care and therapist-led care have been tested in primary health care pathways for joint pain in older adults, for low back pain and for arthritis. In this chapter, we discuss why implementation of these models is important for primary care and how models are implemented using three case examples: we review implementation theory, principles and outcomes; we consider the role of health economic evaluation; and we propose key evidence gaps in this field. We propose the following research priorities for this area: investigating the generalisability of models of care across, for example, urban and rural settings, and for different musculoskeletal conditions; increasing support for self-management; understanding the importance of context in choosing a model of care; detailing how implementation has been undertaken; and evaluation of implementation and its impact.