Implantable functional neuromuscular stimulation in the tetraplegic hand.

@article{Keith1989ImplantableFN,
  title={Implantable functional neuromuscular stimulation in the tetraplegic hand.},
  author={M W Keith and P. Hunter Peckham and Geoffrey B. Thrope and K C Stroh and Barbara F. Smith and J R Buckett and Kevin L. Kilgore and J W Jatich},
  journal={The Journal of hand surgery},
  year={1989},
  volume={14 3},
  pages={524-30}
}
Functional neuromuscular stimulation of the upper extremity provides manipulative capacity to persons with high level tetraplegia who have insufficient voluntary muscles available for tendon transfer surgery. We report an enhancement of the technique to include surgical implantation of a multichannel receiver-stimulator, sensory feedback stimulation, and tendon transfers. Tendon transfers were done with spastic, rather than voluntary motors employing standard surgical techniques. The system… CONTINUE READING

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