Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers. We previously demonstrated that TRPV1 in the dorsal striatum significantly contributes to morphine reward by using the conditioned place preference paradigm in mice; however, it is unknown whether TRPV1 has the same effect in other reward models. In this study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in morphine reward by using a self-administration paradigm in rats. We found that treatment with a selective TRPV1 antagonist, SB366791, significantly decreased morphine self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule or a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. In addition, treatment with another selective TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, not only significantly prevented morphine self-administration but also prevented morphine-induced c-fos expression in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, administration of SB366791 decreased an anxiolytic-like effect during the morphine abstinence period. Moreover, treatment with SB366791 significantly decreased morphine-priming reinstatement. Taken together, our findings suggest that blockade of TRPV1 receptors could provide an approach to limiting morphine addiction.