Impaired ventilatory efficiency in chronic heart failure: possible role of pulmonary vasoconstriction.

@article{Reindl1998ImpairedVE,
  title={Impaired ventilatory efficiency in chronic heart failure: possible role of pulmonary vasoconstriction.},
  author={I. Reindl and K. Wernecke and C. Opitz and R. Wensel and D. K{\"o}nig and T. Dengler and I. Schimke and F. Kleber},
  journal={American heart journal},
  year={1998},
  volume={136 5},
  pages={
          778-85
        }
}
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic heart failure show impairment of ventilatory efficiency, defined as the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide output. It is caused by ventilation of excess physiologic dead space. We hypothesized a role of active vasoconstriction in the increase of physiologic dead space, presumed to lead to alveolar hypoperfusion. METHODS AND RESULTS In 57 patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association classification II through IV, ejection fraction… Expand
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