Impacts of Salmon on Riparian Plant Diversity

  title={Impacts of Salmon on Riparian Plant Diversity},
  author={Morgan D. Hocking and John D. Reynolds},
  pages={1609 - 1612}
A survey of Canadian forests reveals the effects of nutrient subsidies from salmon on plant community structure. The study of natural gradients in nutrient subsidies between ecosystems allows for predictions of how changes in one system can affect biodiversity in another. We performed a large-scale empirical test of the role of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in structuring riparian plant communities. A comparison of 50 watersheds in the remote Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia’s… 
Salmon increase forest bird abundance and diversity
It is shown that bird abundance and diversity increase with salmon biomass and that watershed size and forest composition are less important predictors, providing new evidence for the importance of salmon to terrestrial ecosystems and information that can inform ecosystem-based management.
Effects of subsidies from small anadromous Pacific salmon populations on stream and riparian food webs are mediated by channel gradient
Ecological effects of migratory animal populations on ecosystems can be significant, but these impacts may be modified by other environmental factors, especially when migratory populations are small.
Community Ecology and Conservation of Bear-Salmon Ecosystems
Apex predators play keystone roles in ecosystems through top-down control, but the effects of apex omnivores on ecosystems could be more varied because changes in the resource base alter their
Nitrogen uptake by plants subsidized by Pacific salmon carcasses: a hierarchical experiment
A novel experimental manipulation of salmon carcasses was used to analyze understory plant uptake of salmon-derived N. coli in forest sites along 11 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada and found nitrogen isotope signatures at carcass sites were highly variable.
From earth and ocean: investigating the importance of cross‐ecosystem resource linkages to a mobile estuarine consumer
Externally derived resources often contribute to the structuring of ecological communities. Estuaries are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide an ideal system to test how
Fine-scale spatiotemporal influences of salmon on growth and nitrogen signatures of Sitka spruce tree rings
This study provides clear evidence that the temporal pattern in an allochthonous nutrient source and an interaction with temperature and spatial location influences conifer growth.
Salmon nutrients are associated with the phylogenetic dispersion of riparian flowering-plant assemblages.
It is found that assemblages become more phylogenetically dispersed and species poor adjacent to streams with higher salmon spawning density and increased phylogenetic clumping and species richness was seen in sites with low salmon density, with steeper slopes, further from the stream edge, and within smaller watersheds.
Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon
This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species, and a combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events.
Landscape Structure and Species Interactions Drive the Distribution of Salmon Carcasses in Coastal Watersheds
The disproportionate effects of some species can drive ecosystem processes and shape communities. This study investigates how distributions of spawning Pacific salmon within streams, salmon


Effects of Salmon-Borne Nutrients on Riparian Soils and Vegetation in Southwest Alaska
Spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) contribute marine-derived nutrients to riparian ecosystems, potentially affecting characteristics of the associated soils and vegetation. We quantified
Salmon species, density and watershed size predict magnitude of marine enrichment in riparian food webs
Chum salmon are larger than pink or coho and provide an energetic reward for bears that facilitates carcass transfer, tissue selective foraging, and nutrient distribution by insect scavengers, and moves towards a long-term goal in fisheries ecology to better integrate ecosystem values in salmon conservation.
Salmon and alder as nitrogen sources to riparian forests in a boreal Alaskan watershed
Analysis of riparian vegetation in a boreal Alaskan watershed indicates that trees and shrubs near spawning streams derive ~24–26% of their foliar nitrogen from salmon, which appears to be less important to riparian ecosystems where symbiotic N fixation by alder is prevalent.
Timber harvest transforms ecological roles of salmon in southeast Alaska rain forest streams.
By altering stream sediment size, timber harvest transformed the dominant effect of salmon from nutrient enrichment to physical disturbance, thus modifying nutrient linkages between marine and freshwater ecosystems.
Pacific salmon effects on stream ecosystems: a quantitative synthesis
This comprehensive analysis is the first to quantitatively identify environmental and methodological variables that influence the observed effects of salmon and identify sources of variation in salmon–stream interactions.
Quantitative Links Between Pacific Salmon and Stream Periphyton
Species’ impacts on primary production can have strong ecological consequences. In freshwater ecosystems, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) may influence stream periphyton through substrate
Uptake of salmon-derived nitrogen by mosses and liverworts in coastal British Columbia
Throughout forested watersheds bordering the North Pacific, anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are transferred into coastal forests by numerous predators and scavengers with remnants providing an
How the introduction of foxes onto the Aleutian Islands transformed plant communities by reducing abundant seabird populations, thereby disrupting nutrient sub- sidies vectored by seabirds from sea to land is quantified.
Introduced Predators Transform Subarctic Islands from Grassland to Tundra
It is shown that the introduction of arctic foxes to the Aleutian archipelago induced strong shifts in plant productivity and community structure via a previously unknown pathway.
Pacific Salmon, Nutrients, and the Dynamics of Freshwater and Riparian Ecosystems
Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) accumulate substantial nutrients in their bodies as they grow to adulthood at sea. These nutrients are carried to predominantly oligotrophic lakes and streams,