Impact of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) on an Australian frog (Opisthodon ornatus) depends on minor variation in reproductive timing

  title={Impact of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) on an Australian frog (Opisthodon ornatus) depends on minor variation in reproductive timing},
  author={Michael R. Crossland and Ross A. Alford and Richard Shine},
Invasive species are widely viewed as unmitigated ecological catastrophes, but the reality is more complex. Theoretically, invasive species could have negligible or even positive effects if they sufficiently reduce the intensity of processes regulating native populations. Understanding such mechanisms is crucial to predicting ultimate ecological impacts. We used a mesocosm experiment to quantify the impact of eggs and larvae of the introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) on fitness-related traits… 

Competing tadpoles: Australian native frogs affect invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in natural waterbodies

The results of this field experiment are encouraging for the possibility of using native frogs as one component of an integrated approach to the biological control of cane toads.

Can we use the tadpoles of Australian frogs to reduce recruitment of invasive cane toads

Encouraging the general public to construct and restore waterbodies in peri-urban areas to build up populations of native frogs – especially the much-loved green tree frog Litoria caerulea – could help to reduce recruitment rates of invasive cane toads in Australia.

The Ecological Impact of Invasive Cane Toads (Bufo Marinus) in Australia

  • R. Shine
  • Environmental Science
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 2010
A review of these studies suggests that a single pathwaylethal toxic ingestion of toads by frog-eating predators is the major mechanism of impact, but that the magnitude of impact varies dramatically among predator taxa, as well as through space and time.

Vulnerability of an Australian anuran tadpole assemblage to the toxic eggs of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus)

Overall, the data show that cane toad eggs are highly toxic to native anuran tadpoles, but that whether or not a tadpole is killed by encountering toad egg depends upon a complex interaction between thenative anuran's species, its body size, andWhether or not alternative food was present.

Larval interactions with an invasive species (the Cane Toad Rhinella marina) affect life-history traits in an Australian anuran (the Marbled Frog Limnodynastes convexiusculus)

It is shown that the presence of tadpoles of the invasive Cane Toad Rhinella marina causes tadpole of a native frog to metamorphose later and at smaller sizes, which may render frog metamorphs more vulnerable to desiccation and predation, but render them less vulnerable to Canes Toads.

Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads

Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads.

Mechanisms of competition between tadpoles of Australian frogs (Litoria spp.) and invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina).

Re-introducing native anurans to anthropogenically degraded sites (especially those where local frogs previously occurred, but have been lost) may provide a simple and effective way to reduce the recruitment rate of invasive cane toads.

Habitat use of the introduced cane toad (Rhinella marina) and native frog species in tropical Australia

The habitat use of native frog species and the invasive cane toads in tropical northern Australia is investigated to measure overlap in habitat use, and to test if the presence of the cane toad influences frog behaviour.

Competition Between The Tadpoles of Toads Versus Frogs: A Study of Four Japanese Anuran Taxa

Competition within and among species can play a key role in structuring the assemblages of anuran tadpoles. Previous studies have reported that tadpoles of the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina)

Native White-lipped Frog larvae (Leptodactylus albilabris) outcompete introduced Cane Toad larvae (Rhinella marina) under laboratory conditions.

Adaptations to life in ephemeral habitats may have provided L. albilabris with a competitive advantage over R. marina when their numbers are approximately equal, and further studies are needed to determine if these patterns persist under natural conditions.



Direct and indirect effects of the introduced toad Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) on populations of native anuran larvae in Australia.

Investigation of the impact of eggs and hatchlings of the introduced toad Bufo marinus on populations of native anuran larvae (Limnodynastes ornatus and Litoria rubella) in Australia demonstrates that B. marinus plays an important role in structuring native larval anuran communities via direct and indirect mechanisms, and that Bufe may have both negative and positive effects on population of nativeAnuran larvae.

Indirect impacts of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) on nest predation in pig-nosed turtles (Carettochelys insculpta)

Data and observations indicate that cane toads arrived at the study sites during the wet seasons of 2003–04 and 2004–05, and the lizard V. panoptes has been reduced to such low numbers that it is currently no longer a significant predator of pig-nosed turtle eggs.


The effects of toxic Bufo marinus on potential predators (tadpoles) which are phylogenetically related but which differ in their history of evolutionary exposure to B. marinus were investigated.

The spatial ecology of cane toads (Bufo marinus) in tropical Australia: Why do metamorph toads stay near the water?

It is predicted that metamorph toads benefit from dispersing as soon as desiccation risk allows them to do so, and hence the distribution of met morphs will shift dynamically in response to weather-mediated changes in rates of evaporative water loss.

Evaluation of the toxicity of eggs, hatchlings and tadpoles of the introduced toad Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) to native Australian aquatic predators

Bufo marinus were highly toxic to some predator species, but were readily consumed by other species without apparent ill effect, and some native species adversely affected by B. marinus appeared unable to detect and avoid B.Marinus toxins.

Effects of nonindigenous tadpoles on native tadpoles in Florida: evidence of competition

Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species

Assessment of the influence of predatory eastern newts on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles suggests that the presence of certain species may be an essential factor regulating the ecological impacts of biological invasions.


It is suggested that native tadpoles are often likely to have a greater impact on the survival of early life history stages of native anurans via predation than are B. marinus tadpole.

Toxic tucker: the potential impact of Cane Toads on Australian reptiles

It is concluded that toads pose a real and ongoing threat to the majority of Australian reptile species and all of Australia's crocodiles and freshwater turtles are potentially at risk from toads.