Impact of intensive forest management on soil quality and natural regeneration of Norway spruce

  title={Impact of intensive forest management on soil quality and natural regeneration of Norway spruce},
  author={Raimo Sutinen and Paavo N{\"a}rhi and Hannu Herva and Matti Piekkari and M-L. Sutinen},
  journal={Plant and Soil},
The northern boreal forests in Fennoscandia have been managed for decades using clear-cut harvesting and subsequent mechanical site preparation (MSP). MSP is intended to reduce competing vegetation, improve soil temperature and water conditions as well as mobilize nutrients for the use by outplanted seedlings. The use of heavy machinery, particularly bulldozer-driven Marttiini-plough, has raised concerns about soil quality and therefore sustainability of forest productivity and forest floor… 
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