Objective: To explore the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on the onset of adjuvant chemotherapy and on the postoperative complications. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data from female breast cancer patients treated by either modified radical mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction(IBR) ( n=108) or modified radical mastectomy alone(n=115), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy at our department between January 2011 and December 2012. Results: There was no significant difference in the overall complication rates between the IBR group and modified radical mastectomy group (49.1% vs. 52.2%, P=0.87). However, more secondary surgery was applied in the IBR group than the modified radical mastectomy group (13.0% vs. 1.7%, P=0.001). However, the incidence of hematoma in the modified radical mastectomy group was significantly higher than the IBR group (17.4% vs. 4.6%, P=0.003). There was a significant difference in the onset of adjuvant chemotherapy between the IBR group and modified radical mastectomy group (21 days vs. 11days, P<0.001). Conclusions: Immediate breast reconstruction has no significant impact on the overall complication rate, but increases the incidence of secondary surgery, especially after the initiation of chemotherapy. In addition, it slightly delays adjuvant chemotherapy in the patients.