This study analyzed the impact of cytogenetic abnormalities on outcome of 1516 HLA-identical sibling bone marrow transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in first remission reported to the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry by 188 centers. 708 patients (47%) had cytogenetic studies performed. Transplant outcome in these subjects was similar to the 808 in whom cytogenetic studies were not performed. One or more cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 284 (40%) of subjects studied. Relapse rates were higher and leukemia-free survival lower in patients with poor prognosis abnormalities vs those with no abnormality or with good or intermediate prognosis abnormalities (relative risk of relapse 2.40, P < 0.01; relative risk of treatment failure 1.68, P < 0.03). We conclude that cytogenetic abnormalities correlated with increased relapse in patients treated with chemotherapy. HLA-identical sibling transplants are similar.