Anthropometry helps to assess nutritional status which is an important determinant of clinical outcome in many patients, including the number of those suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Weight gain after successful kidney transplantation is a well-known phenomenon, therefore we hypothesized that intensive counseling, based of menu analysis by a dietitian of CKD patients with a kidney transplant, can prevent the significant body weight (BW) gain after the transplant operation. The aim of the investigation was to study long-term anthropometrical, biochemical and dual-energy densitometry changes in the kidney transplant patients, to study correlations between the studied parameters and to compare those with the follow-up data. The prospective long-term study was carried out in 28 clinically stable renal transplant patients. Control groups consisted both transplant patients (47 patients), receiving ordinary nutritional counseling, and of healthy population subjects (342). Anthropometry and biochemistry were studied in patients twice: the first follow-up (FU1) data were collected 1.3 +/- 0.2 years, and the second follow-up (FU2) data were collected 2.7 +/- 0.3 years after the transplant. Significant BW gain was found only in renal transplant male patients (FU1 vs. FU2, p < 0.001) but not in females. The mean weight gain in control group patients was significant both in the male and female groups. In males, the mean C-reactive protein was significantly correlated with different body circumferences. But, in females, no clear associations were found. In females, significant correlation was found between mean body weight, body mass index and triglycerides. We conclude that the use of anthropometry in clinical practice, together with intensive and individual counseling by a dietitian, should be regular in the kidney transplant patients' population to prevent overweight. Monitoring of the dynamics of anthropometrical and biochemical parameters are clinically relevant in the post-transplant period together with densitometry.