Impact of Stream Hardening on Water Quality and Metabolic Characteristics of Waimanalo and Kane'ohe Streams, O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands

  title={Impact of Stream Hardening on Water Quality and Metabolic Characteristics of Waimanalo and Kane'ohe Streams, O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands},
  author={Edward A Laws and Lauren E Roth},
  journal={Pacific Science},
  pages={261 - 280}
  • E. LawsL. Roth
  • Published 1 April 2004
  • Environmental Science
  • Pacific Science
Kane'ohe and Waimanalo Streams on the windward side of the island of O'ahu in the Hawaiian Islands have been hardened to prevent flooding. The hardening process has involved elimination of the natural riparian habitat and replacement of the natural stream channel with a concrete-lined conduit having vertical walls and a broad, flat bottom. The shallow depth of the water column and absence of shade have resulted in temperatures that average as much as 4-5C above ambient and rise as high as 32C… 

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