Impact of Clouds and Hazes on the Simulated JWST Transmission Spectra of Habitable Zone Planets in the TRAPPIST-1 System

  title={Impact of Clouds and Hazes on the Simulated JWST Transmission Spectra of Habitable Zone Planets in the TRAPPIST-1 System},
  author={Thomas J. Fauchez and Martin Turbet and Geronimo L. Villanueva and Eric. T. Wolf and Giada N. Arney and Ravi kumar Kopparapu and Andrew P. Lincowski and Avi M. Mandell and Julien de Wit and Daria Pidhorodetska and Shawn D. Domagal‐Goldman and Kevin B. Stevenson},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
The TRAPPIST-1 system, consisting of an ultracool host star having seven known Earth-sized planets, will be a prime target for atmospheric characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). However, the detectability of atmospheric molecular species may be severely impacted by the presence of clouds and/or hazes. In this work, we perform 3D general circulation model (GCM) simulations with the LMD-G model supplemented by 1D photochemistry simulations at the terminator with the Atmos… 

Water Ice Cloud Variability and Multi-epoch Transmission Spectra of TRAPPIST-1e

The precise characterization of terrestrial atmospheres with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is one of the utmost goals of exoplanet astronomy in the next decade. With JWST’s impending launch,

Clouds will Likely Prevent the Detection of Water Vapor in JWST Transmission Spectra of Terrestrial Exoplanets

We are on the verge of characterizing the atmospheres of terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zones of M dwarf stars. Due to their large planet-to-star radius ratios and higher frequency of

Effects of UV Stellar Spectral Uncertainty on the Chemistry of Terrestrial Atmospheres

The upcoming deployment of the James Webb Space Telescope will dramatically advance our ability to characterize exoplanet atmospheres, both in terms of precision and sensitivity to smaller and cooler

Distinguishing between Wet and Dry Atmospheres of TRAPPIST-1 e and f

The nearby TRAPPIST-1 planetary system is an exciting target for characterizing the atmospheres of terrestrial planets. The planets e, f, and g lie in the circumstellar habitable zone and could

L 98-59: A Benchmark System of Small Planets for Future Atmospheric Characterization

The M3V dwarf star L 98-59 hosts three small (R < 1.6 R ⊕) planets. The host star is bright (K = 7.1) and nearby (10.6 pc), making the system a prime target for follow-up characterization with the

Detectability of Molecular Signatures on TRAPPIST-1e through Transmission Spectroscopy Simulated for Future Space-based Observatories

Discoveries of terrestrial, Earth-sized exoplanets that lie within the habitable zone (HZ) of their host stars continue to occur at increasing rates. Transit spectroscopy can potentially enable the

Formation and dynamics of water clouds on temperate sub-Neptunes: the example of K2-18b

Context. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectroscopic transit observations of the temperate sub-Neptune K2-18b were interpreted as the presence of water vapour with potential water clouds. 1D modelling

A Review of Possible Planetary Atmospheres in the TRAPPIST-1 System

It is shown that (i) Hubble Space Telescope transit observations, (ii) bulk density measurements comparison with H2-rich planets mass-radius relationships, (iii) atmospheric escape modelling, and (iv) gas accretion modelling altogether offer solid evidence against the presence of hydrogen-dominated—cloud-free and cloudy—atmospheres around TRAPPIST-1 planets.

Prospects for Water Vapor Detection in the Atmospheres of Temperate and Arid Rocky Exoplanets around M-dwarf Stars

Detection of water vapor in the atmospheres of temperate, rocky exoplanets would be a major milestone on the path toward characterization of exoplanet habitability. Past modeling work has shown that

Persistence of flare-driven atmospheric chemistry on rocky habitable zone worlds

Low-mass stars show evidence of vigorous magnetic activity in the form of large flares and coronal mass ejections. Such space weather events may have important ramifications for the habitability and



Limits on Clouds and Hazes for the TRAPPIST-1 Planets

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system is an excellent candidate for study of the evolution and habitability of M-dwarf-hosted planets. Transmission spectroscopy observations performed on the system with

Evolved Climates and Observational Discriminants for the TRAPPIST-1 Planetary System

The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system provides an unprecedented opportunity to study terrestrial exoplanet evolution with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and ground-based observatories. Since M dwarf

The effect of host star spectral energy distribution and ice-albedo feedback on the climate of extrasolar planets.

It is shown that ∼3-10 bar of CO(2) will entirely mask the climatic effect of ice andSnow, leaving the outer limits of the habitable zone unaffected by the spectral dependence of water ice and snow albedo, and the surface ice-albedo feedback effect becomes less important at the outer edge of the inhabited zone.

Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. V. The impact of CO2 ice clouds on the outer boundary of the habitable zone

Clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. The potential scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular

Observing the Atmospheres of Known Temperate Earth-sized Planets with JWST

Nine transiting Earth-sized planets have recently been discovered around nearby late-M dwarfs, including the TRAPPIST-1 planets and two planets discovered by the MEarth survey, GJ 1132b and LHS

Clouds in the atmosphere of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b

A measurement of the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b at near-infrared wavelengths is reported, sufficiently precise to detect absorption features from a high mean-molecular-mass atmosphere and rule out cloud-free atmospheric models with compositions dominated by water, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen or carbon dioxide.


GJ1214b is a warm sub-Neptune transiting in front of a nearby M dwarf star. Recent observations indicate the presence of high and thick clouds or haze whose presence requires strong atmospheric

Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) 1.0: A General Circulation Model for Simulating the Climates of Rocky Planets

Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) is a three-dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) developed at the NASA Goddard Institute

A combined transmission spectrum of the Earth-sized exoplanets TRAPPIST-1 b and c

Observations of the combined transmission spectrum of the two inner planets during their simultaneous transits on 4 May 2016 rule out cloud-free hydrogen-dominated atmospheres for each planet at ≥10σ levels; TRAPPIST-1 b and c are therefore unlikely to have an extended gas envelope as they occupy a region of parameter space in which high-altitude cloud/haze formation is not expected to be significant for hydrogen- dominated atmospheres.

HST hot-Jupiter transmission spectral survey: haze in the atmosphere of WASP-6b

© 2014 The Authors. We report Hubble Space Telescope optical to near-infrared transmission spectroscopy of the hot-Jupiter WASP-6b, measured with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and