Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans

  title={Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans},
  author={Richard A. Feely and Christopher L. Sabine and Kitack Lee and William M Berelson and Joan Kleypas and Victoria J. Fabry and F. J. Millero},
  pages={362 - 366}
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations over the past two centuries have led to greater CO2 uptake by the oceans. This acidification process has changed the saturation state ofthe oceans with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles. Here we estimate the in situ CaCO3 dissolution rates for the global oceans from total alkalinity and chlorofluorocarbon data, and we also discuss the future impacts of anthropogenic CO2 on CaCO3 shell–forming species. CaCO3 dissolution rates… 
Present and Future Changes in Seawater Chemistry Due to Ocean Acidification
The oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 changes the seawater chemistry and potentially can alter biological systems in the upper oceans. Estimates of future atmospheric and oceanic CO 2
Coastal ocean CO2–carbonic acid–carbonate sediment system of the Anthropocene
There is little doubt that human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land use practices have changed and will continue to change the cycling of carbon in the global coastal ocean. In the
Millennial Scale Impacts of Marine Biogenic Calcification Changes on Ocean Carbon Cycling
Ocean acidification resulting from increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are likely to impact calcification rates in pelagic organisms which may, in turn, lead to changes in the
Phytoplankton Calcification in a High-CO2 World
Ocean acidification in response to rising atmospheric CO2 partial pressures is widely expected to reduce calcification by marine organisms. From the mid-Mesozoic, coccolithophores have been major
The fate of pelagic CaCO 3 production in a high CO 2 ocean: a model study
This model study addresses the change in pelagic calcium carbonate production (CaCO 3 , as calcite in the model) and dissolution in response to rising atmospheric CO 2 . The parameterization of CaCO
The Oceanic CaCO 3 Cycle
Ocean acidification of the Greater Caribbean Region 1996–2006
[1] The global oceans serve as the largest sustained natural sink for increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. As this CO2 is absorbed by seawater, it not only reacts causing a
Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification
The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of pCO2 and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species.
Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context
  • P. Williamson, C. Turley
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2012
If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration.


Effect of deep-sea sedimentary calcite preservation on atmospheric CO2 concentration
DURING the last glaciation, the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was about 30% less than the Holocene pre-industrial value1. Although this change is thought to originate in oceanic
In situ calcium carbonate dissolution in the Pacific Ocean
Over the past several years researchers have been working to synthesize the WOCE/JGOFS global CO2 survey data to better understand carbon cycling processes in the oceans. The Pacific Ocean data set
Calcium carbonate budget in the Atlantic Ocean based on water column inorganic carbon chemistry
Recent independent lines of evidence suggest that the dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles is substantial in the upper ocean above the calcite 100% saturation horizon. This
Decreasing marine biogenic calcification: A negative feedback on rising atmospheric pCO2
In laboratory experiments with the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, the ratio of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) to particulate organic carbon (POC) production
Oceanography: Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH
It is found that oceanic absorption of CO2 from fossil fuels may result in larger pH changes over the next several centuries than any inferred from the geological record of the past 300 million years.
Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef
The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is projected to reach twice the preindustrial level by the middle of the 21st century. This increase will reduce the concentration of CO32− of the surface
Production and accumulation of calcium carbonate in the ocean: Budget of a nonsteady state
Present-day production of CaCO3 in tne world ocean is calculated to be about 5 billion tons (bt) per year, of which about 3 bt accumulate in sediments; the other 40% is dissolved. Nearly half of the
Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2
It is suggested that the progressive increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may slow down the production of calcium carbonate in the surface ocean, as the process of calcification releases CO2 to the atmosphere.
Inorganic carbon in the Indian Ocean: Distribution and dissolution processes
This study uses nearly 25,000 carbon measurements from the WOCE/JGOFS global CO2 survey to examine the distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) in the Indian Ocean.
Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs
A coral reef represents the net accumulation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced by corals and other calcifying organisms. If calcification declines, then reef-building capacity also declines.