Impact of Antarctic Circumpolar Current Development on Late Paleogene Ocean Structure

@article{Katz2011ImpactOA,
  title={Impact of Antarctic Circumpolar Current Development on Late Paleogene Ocean Structure},
  author={Miriam E. Katz and Benjamin S. Cramer and J. R. Toggweiler and Gar Esmay and Chengjie Liu and Kenneth G. Miller and Yair Rosenthal and Bridget S. Wade and James Wright},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={332},
  pages={1076 - 1079}
}
The modern four-layered ocean structure developed during the early Oligocene, when Antarctica developed permanent ice cover. Global cooling and the development of continental-scale Antarctic glaciation occurred in the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~38 to 28 million years ago), accompanied by deep-ocean reorganization attributed to gradual Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) development. Our benthic foraminiferal stable isotope comparisons show that a large δ13C offset developed between… 

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...

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