Impact-echo response of concrete shafts

@article{Lin1991ImpactechoRO,
  title={Impact-echo response of concrete shafts},
  author={YiChing Lin and Mary Sansalone and Nicholas J. Carino},
  journal={Geotechnical Testing Journal},
  year={1991},
  volume={14},
  pages={121-137}
}
Numerical and experimental studies of the transient response of concrete shafts subjected to elastic impact were carried out using the finite element method and the impact-echo testing technique. Two- and three-dimensional finite element studies of concrete shafts were performed for: (a) solid shafts; (b) shafts containing cracks, voids, layers of low-quality concrete, and changes in cross section, such as bulges and necks; and (c) shafts in soil. These studies were carried out to gain an… 
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