Immunotoxicology of non-functionalized engineered nanoparticles in aquatic organisms with special emphasis on fish--review of current knowledge, gap identification, and call for further research.


The rapid increase in use of nanotechnology products is increasing the presence of metal, metal-oxide and carbon-based nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. These non-functionalized engineered nanoparticles can interact with the immune system of fish and invertebrates, and tip the ecological balance of population sustainability. Most nanoparticle types… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.04.005


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