Immunotoxicity of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and the Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha

@article{DeWitt2009ImmunotoxicityOP,
  title={Immunotoxicity of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and the Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha},
  author={Jamie C. DeWitt and Alexander Shnyra and Mostafa Z. Badr and Scott E. Loveless and Denise Hoban and S. Randall Frame and Robyn Cunard and Stacey E. Anderson and Barbara J. Meade and Margie M. Peden‐Adams and Robert W. Luebke and Michael I. Luster},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  year={2009},
  volume={39},
  pages={76 - 94}
}
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are environmentally widespread and persistent chemicals with multiple toxicities reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds can trigger biological activity by activating the alpha isotype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression; however, some biological effects may occur independently of the receptor. Activation of the… 

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