Immunotoxicity in the bovine animal: a review.

  title={Immunotoxicity in the bovine animal: a review.},
  author={Roger Black and David McVey and Frederick W. Oehme},
  journal={Veterinary and human toxicology},
  volume={34 5},
The immune system is a complex biological system involving cellular defenses as well as endogenous and exogenous factors. The potential for immune system exposure to immunotoxins in the environment is well documented. However, caution should be exercised when extrapolating meaningful conclusions from experimental data to assess risk factors to the bovine. Mycotoxins alter immune-mediated activities in cattle and are major immunotoxic risks. Another risk to the bovine is lead. Poor disposal of… CONTINUE READING