Immunotherapy targeting 4-1BB: mechanistic rationale, clinical results, and future strategies.

4-1BB (CD137, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 9) is an inducible costimulatory receptor expressed on activated T and natural killer (NK) cells. 4-1BB ligation on T cells triggers a signaling cascade that results in upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules, cytokine secretion, and enhanced effector function. In dysfunctional T cells that have a… CONTINUE READING