Immunotherapy: past, present and future

  title={Immunotherapy: past, present and future},
  author={Thomas A. Waldmann},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
  • T. Waldmann
  • Published 1 March 2003
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nature Medicine
Harnessing the immune system to treat chronic infectious diseases or cancer is a major goal of immunotherapy. Among others, impediments to this aim include host failure to identify tumor antigens, tolerance to self and negative immunoregulatory mechanisms. But with recent progress, active and passive immunotherapy are proving themselves as effective therapeutic strategies. 

Progress on new vaccine strategies for the immunotherapy and prevention of cancer.

This review examines the fundamental immunologic advances and the novel vaccine strategies arising from these advances, as well as the early clinical trials studying new approaches to treat or prevent cancer.

Immunotherapy in acute leukemia.

  • W. Leung
  • Medicine
    Seminars in hematology
  • 2009
The latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia are reviewed.

Frontiers in nephrology: T cell memory as a barrier to transplant tolerance.

Immunologic memory, or the ability to respond more rapidly and effectively to the previously encountered pathogens, represents a fundamental feature of the adaptive immune system. Such memory

Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics for the Treatment of Malignant Disease

A number of immunotherapeutic strategies have arisen for the treatment of malignant disease, including various vaccination schemes, cytokine therapy, adoptive cellular therapy, and monoclonal antibody therapy.

The Mechanism of Checkpoint Inhibitors in Gynecologic Cancer

Among immunomodulators, checkpoint inhibitors are used to enhance the immune system and significantly improve therapeutic results of advanced disease, mounting tumor progression.

Cytokine, chemokine, and co-stimulatory fusion proteins for the immunotherapy of solid tumors.

Evidence is presented to show that Treg cells play an important role in suppressing antitumor immunity since the deletion of these cells, when used in combination with LEC or costimulatory fusion proteins, produced profound and effective treatment with sustained memory.

Immunotherapy as an Option for Cancer Treatment

Pre-clinical research using ex vivo and in vivo approaches demonstrates the promise of numerous novel strategies for the immunotherapy of cancer, including therapies based on the blockade of immune checkpoint molecules.

Principles of Immunotherapy: Implications for Treatment Strategies in Cancer and Infectious Diseases

Although “immunotherapy” is habitually associated with the treatment of cancer, this review accentuates the evolving role of key targeted immune interventions that are approved, as well as those in development, for various cancers and infectious diseases.

Taking dendritic cells into medicine

Some medical implications of DC biology that account for illness and provide opportunities for prevention and therapy are presented.



Vaccines: Spinning molecular immunology into successful immunotherapy

Some of the most promising molecular and cellular targets for immunotherapy are reviewed and approaches that use these targets to amplify immune responses and potentially break antigen-specific tolerance are discussed, providing a blueprint for the development of successful immunotherapy over the next decade.

The prime-boost strategy: exciting prospects for improved vaccination.

Immunotherapy of human cancer: lessons from mice

It may be necessary to consider different endpoints and objectives when evaluating the efficacy of these newer approaches to immunotherapies for cancer, as well as the approval process designed for testing drugs.

Improving the efficacy of antibody-based cancer therapies

A quarter of a century after their advent, monoclonal antibodies have become the most rapidly expanding class of pharmaceuticals for treating a wide variety of human diseases, including cancer, and many innovative approaches stand poised to improve the efficacy of antibody-based therapies.

Tumor antigens recognized by T cells.

Human tumor antigens recognized by T cells.

[Monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis and therapy].

The value of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) produced against renal, bladder and prostate cancer antigens is demonstrated. These mAb allow a molecular classification of urological cancers as well as

CTLA-4-mediated inhibition in regulation of T cell responses: mechanisms and manipulation in tumor immunotherapy.

Newly emerging data suggest that inhibitory signals mediated by CTLA-4 not only can determine whether T cells become activated, but also can play a role in regulating the clonal representation in a polyclonal response.

Control of homeostasis of CD8+ memory T cells by opposing cytokines.

It is shown that CD8+ T cells of memory phenotype divide slowly in animals and is markedly increased by inhibition of interleukin-2 (IL-2), which means that the numbers ofCD8+ memory T cells in animals are controlled by a balance between IL-15 and IL-2.

Fas and the art of lymphocyte maintenance

  • M. Lenardo
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental medicine
  • 1996
The article by Simon et al. (6) illustrates the dangers of defective homeostasis by showing that somatic alterations in the regulation of the death-inducing molecule Fas may be associated with hypereosinophilia and its attendant pathological complications.