Effect of heated naringenin on immunomodulatory properties and cellular antioxidant activity
The search of natural immunomodulatory agents has become an area of great interest in order to reduce damage to the human body. In this study, the immunomodulatory potential of Crataegus azarolus and its isolated hyperoside on mouse lymphocytes and macrophages in vitro was assessed. The effect of C. azarolus natural compounds on splenocytes proliferation, natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) activities, and on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity were assessed by MTT test. Phagocytic activity and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) release by macrophages were also evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of these products was evaluated by determining their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) in splenocytes and macrophages. Depending on the concentrations, both ethyl acetate (EA) extract and hyperoside (Hyp) from C. azarolus affect macrophage functions by modulating their lysosomal enzyme activity and nitric oxide release. Whereas, the above-mentioned products significantly promote LPS and lectin-stimulated splenocyte proliferation, implying a potential activation of lymphocytes B and T enhancing humoral and cellular immune responses. Moreover, EA extract and Hyp could enhance the activity of NK and T lymphocytes cells, as well as the macrophages-mediated cytotoxicity against B16F10 cells. The anti-inflammatory activity was concomitant with the cellular antioxidant effect of the tested compounds against macrophages and splenocytes. Collectively, C. azarolus and its isolated hyperoside exhibited an immunomodulatory effect through their antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that C. azarolus should be explored as a novel potential immunomodulatory agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.