Immunomodulatory mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells and their therapeutic applications.

  title={Immunomodulatory mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells and their therapeutic applications.},
  author={Don Kuen Lee and Sun Uk Song},
  journal={Cellular immunology},
In the recent years, many studies have shown that MSCs must be stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines or other immune mediators before they can modulate immune cells in inflamed and damaged tissues. MSCs appear to be involved in inducing several regulatory immune cells, such as Tregs, Bregs, and regulatory NK cells. This new immune milieu created by MSCs may establish a tolerogenic environment that leads to an optimal condition for the treatment of immune diseases. The mechanisms of MSC… CONTINUE READING
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