Immunomodulatory effects upon in vitro exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid.

During red tide bloom events, the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia produces the toxin domoic acid (DA), which has been associated with stranding and mortality events involving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris). In addition to these well-documented DA-induced neurotoxic events, there is increasing concern… CONTINUE READING