Immunomodulatory effects of morphine withdrawal in the rat are time dependent and reversible by clonidine

@article{West1999ImmunomodulatoryEO,
  title={Immunomodulatory effects of morphine withdrawal in the rat are time dependent and reversible by clonidine},
  author={J. Paige West and Linda A. Dykstra and Donald T. Lysle},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={1999},
  volume={146},
  pages={320-327}
}
Rationale: It is well established that opioids can modulate the immune status following both acute and chronic administration and that tolerance develops to some of these immunomodulatory effects. Few studies, however, have investigated opioid withdrawal-induced immunomodulation and the mechanism by which that process may be mediated. Objectives: The present study examines the immunomodulatory properties of morphine withdrawal alone and in the presence of the α2-adrenergic agonist, clonidine… CONTINUE READING
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