Immunomodulation of mesenchymal stem cells in discogenic pain.


BACKGROUND CONTEXT Back pain is a highly prevalent health problem in the world today and has a great economic impact on health-care budgets. Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration has been identified as a main cause of back pain. Inflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages or disc cells in an inflammatory environment play an important role in painful… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.spinee.2017.09.002

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