Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy

  title={Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy},
  author={Laurence Zitvogel and Lionel Apetoh and François Ghiringhelli and Guido Kroemer},
  journal={Nature Reviews Immunology},
Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate and adaptive immune systems make a crucial contribution to the antitumour effects of conventional chemotherapy-based and radiotherapy-based cancer treatments. Moreover, the molecular and cellular bases of the immunogenicity of cell death that is induced by cytotoxic agents are being progressively unravelled, challenging the guidelines that currently govern the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we review the immunological aspects of… 

Effect of Chemotherapy on the Tumor Microenvironment and Anti-tumor Immunity

An understanding of the interactions between cytotoxic therapies and the immune system and the tumor microenvironment is crucial for the rational development of combination treatments of immunotherapy with conventional or targeted therapies to achieve a synergistic antitumor effect and improved treatment outcomes.

Combining immunotherapy and anticancer agents: the right path to achieve cancer cure?

The present review aims to summarize the immune-mediated effects of chemotherapeutic agents and their clinical relevance, the biological and clinical features of immune checkpoint blockers and finally, the preclinical and clinical rationale for novel therapeutic strategies combining anticancer agents and immune checkpoint blocker.

Immunological off-target effects of standard treatments in gastrointestinal cancers.

  • A. DuffyT. Greten
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • 2014
This review summarizes the immune aspects of currently employed therapies-cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, biologic agents and interventional radiologic procedures-in solid tumor malignancies with a particular focus on those agents used in gastrointestinal cancers.

Chemotherapy reinforces anti-tumor immune response and enhances clinical efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors

Combining chemotherapeutics with ICIs appears to be a promising approach for improving cancer treatment outcomes.

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: therapeutic modulation in cancer.

  • R. Wilcox
  • Biology, Medicine
    Frontiers in bioscience
  • 2012
Improved mechanistic understanding of factors promoting their development, activation and mechanisms of immune suppression are being translated into novel therapeutic approaches, and will be summarized herein.

Molecular interactions between dying tumor cells and the innate immune system determine the efficacy of conventional anticancer therapies.

Data suggests that HMGB1- and TLR4-dependent immune responses elicited by conventional cancer treatment may increase the probability to achieve a durable therapeutic success.

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy: cryptic anticancer vaccines.

Novel mechanism of synergistic effects of conventional chemotherapy and immune therapy of cancer

This review discusses several possible mechanisms of the combined effect of immunotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer and examines various aspects of this issue such as the combination of different treatment options, the dosage for each arm of treatment, and the timing and sequence of the administration of these treatments.



Gemcitabine exerts a selective effect on the humoral immune response: implications for combination chemo-immunotherapy.

Gemcitabine does not appear to be detrimental to specific antitumor cellular immunity and may be useful in combination chemo-immunotherapy protocols, in contrast, vaccination protocols requiring a humoral immune response for maximal efficacy may be compromised in patients treated with gem citabine.

The interaction between HMGB1 and TLR4 dictates the outcome of anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy

It is shown that the release of the high mobility group box 1 protein by dying tumor cells is mandatory to license host dendritic cells (DCs) to process and present tumor antigens, and this knowledge may be clinically exploited to predict the immunogenicity and hence the efficacy of chemotherapeutic regimens.

Synergy between chemotherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of established murine solid tumors.

Evidence is provided that chemotherapy has the capacity to augment cellular antitumor immunity, a finding with wider implications for the management of treatment-resistant solid tumors.

The immunological effects of taxanes

Taxanes are immunostimulatory against neoplasms, supporting the idea that these agents suppress cancer through several mechanisms and not solely through inhibiting cell division.

Toll-like receptor 4–dependent contribution of the immune system to anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy

A previously unrecognized pathway for the activation of tumor antigen–specific T-cell immunity that involves secretion of the high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) alarmin protein by dying tumor cells and the action of HMGB1 on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) is described.

Immunotherapy and chemotherapy — a practical partnership

How recent data have altered the way the authors understand how dying tumour cells, particularly those killed by chemotherapy, engage with antitumour immune responses has significant implications for the development of new protocols combining chemotherapy with immunotherapy.

Chemo-immunotherapy and chemo-adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.

CIT has become less toxic, is being handled on a cost-effective outpatient basis, while maintaining similar objective response rates to earlier inpatient treatments, and will probably have an increasing role in the management of patients with specific cancers.

Immunomodulatory properties of antineoplastic drugs administered in conjunction with GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines.

Combination doxorubicin and vaccine treatment of established CT26 cancers increased cure rates over that achieved with either agent alone, while combination cyclophosphamide and vaccines treatment of animals carrying CT26 tumors was no better in curing the animals than drug treatment alone.

Cancer despite immunosurveillance: immunoselection and immunosubversion

At the early stages of carcinogenesis, cell-intrinsic barriers to tumour development seem to be associated with stimulation of an active antitumour immune response, whereas overt tumours development seems to correlate with changes in the immunogenic properties of tumour cells.