Immunologic studies of nonunited fractures.

  title={Immunologic studies of nonunited fractures.},
  author={Seppo S Santavirta and Yrj{\"o} T. Konttinen and Dan C. E. Nordstr{\"o}m and Arja M{\"a}kel{\"a} and Timo Sorsa and Mika V J Hukkanen and Pentti Rokkanen},
  journal={Acta orthopaedica Scandinavica},
  volume={63 6},
We studied tissue samples of noninfected delayed union or nonunion of diaphyseal bones in 10 patients immunopathologically and neuroimmunologically 4 to 25 months after the primary injury. Samples mostly consisted of vascularized connective tissue of varying density with the proline-4-hydroxylase-containing fibroblast as the major cell type. Most inflammatory cells were CD4 T-lymphocytes and their number was always twice that of the CD8 positive cells. Staining for CD11b positive monocyte… CONTINUE READING

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