Rationale for prostaglandin I2 in bone marrow oedema – from theory to application
Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is an important mediator implicated in bone metabolism. Among the natural prostaglandins it is the most potent inhibitor of bone resorption and mediates bone modelling and remodelling induced by strain changes. The effects of prostacyclin depend on its interaction with a specific receptor (IP). Despite its well documented effects on bone the localization and distribution of the IP receptor in human bone remain unknown. The present study used specific antipeptide antibodies to IP receptor for immunolocalization of the IP receptor in normal, osteoporotic and Pagetic human adult bone and in human fetal bone. The IP receptor was detected in fetal and adult osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Fetal osteocytes also expressed IP receptor but not adult osteocytes. Interestingly, the expression of IP receptor in adult osteoblasts was gradually lost as these cells were trapped in the matrix and became osteocytes. The IP receptor showed a perinuclear distribution within the cells, but in multinuclear osteoclasts not all nuclei were positive. Our results showed differences in IP receptor expression in fetal and adult human bone and, in adult bone, with the differentiation of osteoblasts into osteocytes. They also showed that there is no difference on the expression of prostacyclin receptors in Pagetic, osteoporotic and normal human bone, and they confirm the presence of the IP receptor in human osteoblasts as had been demonstrated by our previous study with human osteoblasts in culture.