This study reports the characterization of a polyclonal antiserum to a carboxy-terminal epitope of the P2Y(1) receptor and its use in immunolocalization studies of this receptor in the CNS. The antibody recognized a major band of 42 kDa in Western blot of tissue homogenates from rat and bovine brain. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed early reports about the presence of the P2Y(1) receptor in the corpus callosum, habenula and ductal cells of the salivary gland. In addition, we found that the P2Y(1) receptor is intensely expressed in Purkinje cells, in deep layers of the cerebral cortex and in ischemic-sensitive areas of the hippocampus. Moreover, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in brain white matter tracts and optic nerve were also immunoreactive. The intense expression of the P2Y(1) peptide in the aforementioned cell types suggests that this receptor may play fundamental roles in glial physiology. This antiserum should be a useful tool to study the presence of the P2Y(1) receptor in different tissues and cell cultures as well as in expression systems, and to distinguish the P2Y(1) from other subtypes of P2Y receptors.