Canine invasive mammary carcinomas as models of human breast cancer. Part 1: natural history and prognostic factors
The objectives of this study were to measure the proliferation indices in canine mammary tumors using immunohistochemical detection of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), to determine the relationship of these antigens to clinical and pathologic variables, and to investigate the usefulness of these antigens as prognostic indicators. Ninety-six female dogs with 115 primary nonmetastasized spontaneous mammary tumors and dysplasias were included in the study. Immunostaining was performed using MIB-1 and PC10 monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67 and PCNA, respectively. Ki-67 and PCNA proliferation indices were determined. Dogs were followed for 18 months, with clinical examinations every 3-4 months. There was a significant correlation between Ki-67 and PCNA indices in the dogs with dysplasias and benign tumors but not in the dogs with malignant tumors. The clinical stage at first presentation was related to the proliferative index measured with Ki-67 but not to that measured with PCNA. Proliferation indices were significantly lower in the nonmalignant tumors and dysplasias than in the malignant tumors. In malignant tumors, the PCNA index had a positive correlation with the histologic malignant grade and the nuclear grade. High index values of Ki-67 were positively correlated with metastasis, death from neoplasia, low disease-free survival rates, and low overall survival rates. PCNA displayed no significant association with these variables. Multivariate analyses concerning metastasis, disease-free survival, and overall survival revealed that the Ki-67 index had prognostic value.