Forensic entomotoxicology revisited—towards professional standardisation of study designs
Morphine was detected by immunohistochemistry on sections of third stage larvae of Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera, Calliphoridae) reared on minced beef meat previously treated with morphine hydrochloride. The detection was performed with an avidin-biotin-peroxidase-complex method. Positive specimens showed specific staining of the haemolymph and a more intense immunoreaction in an area located at the limit between exocuticle and endocuticle. These results constitute an evidence of morphine accumulation inside the cuticle of Diptera larvae during their development. During the pupariation, the larval cuticle is transformed into the sclerotized puparium. This study consequently points out the possibilities of analyzing empty pupariae when suitable tissues or living necrophagous insects are absent.