We report the morphological characteristics of 30 cases of sclerosing hemangioma (SH) of the lung and explore the histological origin of the major cells in these tumors. In addition to routine light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry was performed by using 12 monoclonal primary and 5 polyclonal primary antibodies. These included surfactant protein B (SP-B), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), mast cell trypsin, CD68, epithelial antigen markers (high molecular weight cytokeratin, low molecular weight cytokeratin [CK-L], epithelial membrane antigen [EMA], cancer embryonic antigen), mesothelial antigen, neuroendocrine markers (neuron-specific enolase [NSE], chromogranin A, synaptophysin, calcitonin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, human growth hormone [hHG]), vimentin, and CD34. Surface cuboidal cells have short microvilli and have lamellar bodies in their cytoplasm. They can sometimes merge into multinuclear giant cells. Immunohistochemical results showed that these cells are strongly positive for SP-B, TTF-1, CK-L, EMA, and cancer embryonic antigen, whereas polygonal cells, previously also described as round or pale cells, were strongly positive for vimentin and TTF-1, and positive or weakly positive for 2 to 3 kinds of neuroendocrine markers. Sparse neuroendocrine granules and abundant microfilaments were observed in their cytoplasm. Some cell clusters in the solid regions were positive for SP-B and EMA. Mast cells existed sparsely in almost every field. Both cuboidal and polygonal cells were negative to CD34 and mesothelial antigen staining. We conclude that cuboidal cells of SH originate from reactive proliferating type II pneumocytes, which can fuse into multinuclear giant cells. Polygonal cells, as true tumor cells, likely originate from multipotential primitive respiratory epithelium and possess the capability for multipotential differentiation. The antibodies of SP-B, TTF-1, vimentin, and CK-L are very helpful to diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SH.