As B-lymphocytes on the pharyngeal tonsils constitute a considerable part of the leukocytes in the surface secretion, and their biological role is obscure, we explored their possible function with respect to immunoglobulin production. Twenty children scheduled for routine adenoidectomy participated. Surface secretion from 10 children was analysed for presence of plasma cells and cells from the secretions of the other 10 children were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays (ELISPOT-assays) for their capacity to secrete and produce IgA, IgM and IgG. Plasma cells and cells that secreted IgA, IgM and IgG respectively were present in the secretions of all tested children. In eight of ten children the IgG immunocytes, Ig-producing blasts and plasma cells. outnumbered the IgA immunocytes. The number of immunoglobulin secreting cells (ISCs) was reduced by half or more in cell suspensions exposed to the reversible protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. It is concluded that immunocytes that produce and secrete immunoglobulin are present in the surface secretion on the pharyngeal tonsils. The production represents an addition to the immunoglobulins transported to the secretion by the poly-Ig receptor and by passive diffusion. The results shed new light on the pathogenesis of mucosal infections in the upper airways.