Immunogenicity and toxicity testing of an experimental HIV-1 vaccine in nonhuman primates.

  title={Immunogenicity and toxicity testing of an experimental HIV-1 vaccine in nonhuman primates.},
  author={Mark J. Newman and J. Y. Wu and Richard T. Coughlin and Cheryl Isaac Murphy and John R. Seals and Michael S. Wyand and Charlotte Read Kensil},
  journal={AIDS research and human retroviruses},
  volume={8 8},
A highly purified saponin from Q. saponaria (QS-21) was tested in juvenile rhesus macaques for adjuvant activity and toxicity. The QS-21 was tested alone or as part of an experimental subunit HIV-1 vaccine containing a truncated recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein (gp160D) adsorbed to alum. Antibody responses were measured using ELISA and cell-mediated immunity was measured using cellular proliferation assays. Potential toxicity was monitored by standard clinical pathology testing using… 
QS-21 promotes an adjuvant effect allowing for reduced antigen dose during HIV-1 envelope subunit immunization in humans.
The use of QS-21 may provide a means to reduce the dose of a soluble protein immunogen by improving the magnitude or kinetics of immune responses induced by recombinant soluble gp120 HIV-1(MN) protein immunization.
Immunogenicity of HIV‐1LAI gp160 and env peptides in squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus using alumine and experimental adjuvants
Results obtained underlined the key role of the adjuvant formulation in the antibody response against a given part of the immunogen, and indicate that such immunogenicity‐related investigation can be carried out conveniently in the squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus.
Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 recombinant canarypox (ALVAC) vaccine candidate in cynomolgus monkeys.
There was no correlation between the immunologic parameters studied and protection against infection in the vaccinated monkeys, and high antibody titers to HIV-2 gp125 were demonstrated in monkeys given booster immunizations with gp125.
Preclinical evaluation of cellular immune responses elicited by a polyvalent DNA prime/protein boost HIV-1 vaccine.
This study reveals that, in addition to augmenting humoral responses, protein boosting of DNA-primed animals augments cellular immune responses mediated by CD8+ CTL, CD4+ T-helper cells and Th1 cytokines; thus, offering much promise in controlling HIV-1 in vaccinees.
Adjuvant activity of QS-21 for experimental E. coli 018 polysaccharide vaccines.
Both the number of individual mice responding and the titres of O-polysaccharide specific antibodies in pools of sera were increased by the addition of QS-21, and the immune response to both O-specific poly Saccharide and carrier was primarily IgM and IgG1.
The adjuvant combination monophosphoryl lipid A and QS21 switches T cell responses induced with a soluble recombinant HIV protein from Th2 to Th1.
3D-MPL appears to act as an adjuvant, without the toxicity associated with LPS, by controlled and selective potentiating effects on antigen presentation and T-cell activation.
Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of a recombinant Osp subunit canine Lyme disease vaccine.
The subunit canine Lyme disease vaccine was safe and protective and elicited immunological memory and Vaccinated dogs were serologically distinguishable from those naturally exposed.
GlaxoSmithKline Adjuvant Systems in vaccines: concepts, achievements and perspectives
The promising clinical results strongly support the concept of Adjuvant Systems and allow for further development of new vaccines, best adapted to the target population and the immune mechanisms of protection.
Liposomes as Carriers of Peptide Antigens: Induction of Antibodies and Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes to Conjugated and Unconjugated Peptides
Computer-generated molecular modelling analysis of small unconjugated or lipid-conjugated peptides strongly suggests that the expression of peptide antigen on the surface of the liposomes can be an important factor both in the induction of antibodies and in determining antibody specificities to small peptides.
The V3 loop based multi-epitope polypeptide TAB9 adjuvated with montanide ISA720 is highly immunogenic in nonhuman primates and induces neutralizing antibodies against five HIV-1 isolates.
TAB 9 in M-ISA720 was highly immunogenic in macaques (Macaca fascicularis) inducing antibodies against TAB9 in all animals after one inoculation and a strong anamnestic response after booster injections.