One hundred fifty-six of 1,250 sera from patients with presumed connective tissue and related diseases showed vascular staining on mouse liver cryostat sections when they were routinely checked for antinuclear factor by the indirect immunofluorescence test. In a third of the cases, the vascular immunofluorescent pattern was given by the EVI antibody reacting with the plasma membrane of striated muscle fibers and endothelial cells, as has been recently described to occur in Chagas' disease. This led to the detection of previously unsuspected Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 67.8% of the serum samples in which the EVI antibody was detected after observation of a positive vascular pattern with mouse liver cryostat sections. On the other hand, no significant relationship between Chagas infection and sera with other anti-striated-muscle immunofluorescent patterns that also showed a vascular staining on mouse liver cryostat sections was established. Consideration of the vascular pattern observed with the EVI antibody on mouse liver cryostat sections can be helpful in detection of previously ignored T. cruzi infection in patients who have connective-tissue diseases and related conditions. This is of interest in view of the fact that anergic immunodepressive therapy, often used in these patients, significantly alters the host-parasite relationship and may lead to severe dissemination of the parasite.