Distribution of pectins in cell walls of maturing anther of Allium cepa L. was investigated. The monoclonal antibodies against defined epitopes of pectin were used: JIM5 recognizing unesterified pectin and JIM7 recognizing esterified pectin. It has been found that the cell walls of all anther tissues mainly contain esterified pectins. In the somatic tissues only small amounts of unesterified pectins are present in the cell wall junctions and adjacent middle lamellae and in the cell walls of the connective tissue. Thickening of the epiderm cell walls and growth of trabeculae in endothecium are completed through deposition of esterified pectins. In the cell walls of the middle layer and tapetum, unesterified pectins have been found only prior to their disintegration. The primary wall of microsporocytes is made up mainly of esterified pectins. Unesterified pectins occur outside microsporocytes only prior to the callose isolation stage. The presence of esterified pectins has also been detected on the surface of the callose wall surrounding dividing microsporocytes. Lysis of those pectins takes place after microsporogenesis, simultaneously with the lysis of the callosic walls. Before these processes pectins are unesterified. In the sporoderm of pollen grains mainly esterified pectins occur. They have been localized in the intine and aperture. The level of unesterified pectins in the intine is markedly lower.