Immunobiological barriers to xenotransplantation.

@article{Cooper2015ImmunobiologicalBT,
  title={Immunobiological barriers to xenotransplantation.},
  author={David K. C. Cooper and Burcin Ekser and Alfred Joseph Tector},
  journal={International journal of surgery},
  year={2015},
  volume={23 Pt B},
  pages={211-216}
}
Binding of natural anti-pig antibodies in humans and nonhuman primates to carbohydrate antigens expressed on the transplanted pig organ, the most important of which is galactose-α1,3-galactose (Gal), activate the complement cascade, which results in destruction of the graft within minutes or hours, known as hyperacute rejection. Even if antibody is removed… CONTINUE READING