Immunity, Inflammation, and Allergy in the Gut

  title={Immunity, Inflammation, and Allergy in the Gut},
  author={Thomas T. Macdonald and Giovanni Monteleone},
  pages={1920 - 1925}
The gut immune system has the challenge of responding to pathogens while remaining relatively unresponsive to food antigens and the commensal microflora. In the developed world, this ability appears to be breaking down, with chronic inflammatory diseases of the gut commonplace in the apparent absence of overt infections. In both mouse and man, mutations in genes that control innate immune recognition, adaptive immunity, and epithelial permeability are all associated with gut inflammation. This… 

Intestinal Immune Regulation as a Potential Diet-Modifiable Feature of Gut Inflammation and Autoimmunity

Diet-modifiable aspects of gut immunity that alter the intricate balance between inflammatory and tolerogenic immune responses in the gut and contribute to disease development are described.

Commensal flora and the regulation of inflammatory and autoimmune responses.

Mechanisms of Intestinal Tolerance to Dietary Proteins

This chapter will discuss the unique properties of the immune system in the gastrointestinal tract and study how dendritic cells, the most potent antigen presenting cells, control mechanisms of immune homeostasis in the intestine.

Regulation of homeostasis and inflammation in the intestine.

Some aspects of gut immunity that could alter the delicate balance between inflammatory and tolerogenic responses and result in chronic gastrointestinal tract inflammation in patients are described.

Gut Microbiota and the Immune System: An Intimate Partnership in Health and Disease

Findings indicating how the host immune system responds to bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract are given, indicating Alterations in both the structure and function of intestinal microbiota could be one of the ‘common causative triggers’ of autoimmune and/or autoinflammatory disorders.

Gut Microbiome and Immunity

Although evidence suggests a critical time frame for normal acquisition of gut microbiota, dietary factors serve as a promising target for manipulating the gut microbiota to boost the immune system at every stage of life.

Dendritic cells in intestinal homeostasis and disease.

How DC dysfunction contributes to intestinal disease development, including inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease; and manipulation of DCs for therapy are examined are examined.

Gut Immunity and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

In-depth understanding of novel immunotherapeutics in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) requires general familiarity of the intestinal immune system. In this chapter, we discuss fundamentals of

T Regulatory Cell and Body Tolerance

The role of regulatory T cells in Gut and whole body homeostasis is examined and the role of the Treg in defining both the local and systemic immune response is important.

New Paradigms in the Pathogenesis of IBD

IBD patients are genetically predisposed to a dysregulated interaction between commensal bacteria and the intestinal mucosal immune system, and pathogenesis is now thought to be due to these flaws in the innate immune system along with “dysbiosis” of the Commensal instestinal flora.



Anatomical basis of tolerance and immunity to intestinal antigens

  • A. Mowat
  • Medicine
    Nature Reviews Immunology
  • 2003
The unique aspects of the local microenvironment of the intestinal immune system are reviewed and how these promote the development of regulatory responses that ensure the maintenance of homeostasis in the gut are discussed.

Nod2-Dependent Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in the Intestinal Tract

It is shown that protective immunity mediated by Nod2 recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide is abolished in Nod1-deficient mice, providing a possible mechanism for Nod 2 mutations in CD.

Bacterial flagellin is a dominant antigen in Crohn disease

Serological expression cloning was used to identify commensal bacterial proteins that could contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD and identify flagellins as a class of immunodominant antigens that stimulate pathogenic intestinal immune reactions in genetically diverse hosts.

Tolerance exists towards resident intestinal flora but is broken in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Tolerance selectively exists to intestinal flora from autologous but not heterologous intestine, and that tolerance is broken in intestinal inflammation is shown, which may be an important mechanism for the perpetuation of chronic IBD.

The mucosal immune system

This article outlines the lymphoid structures and cell types important in the intestinal immune response. Particular attention is paid to differences between rodents and man where there appears to be

Defensin-mediated innate immunity in the small intestine.

  • A. Ouellette
  • Biology
    Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • 2004

Starting at the beginning: new perspectives on the biology of mucosal T cells.

The immense expansion and specialization of the immune system is particularly mirrored in the phylogeny, ontogeny, organization, and regulation of the adaptive intraepithelial lymphocytes, or IEL, which are key players in the unique intestinal defense mechanisms that have evolved in mammals.

CX3CR1-Mediated Dendritic Cell Access to the Intestinal Lumen and Bacterial Clearance

A myeloid-derived mucosal DC in mice is identified, which populates the entire lamina propria of the small intestine, and CX3CR1-dependent processes, which control host interactions of specialized DCs with commensal and pathogenic bacteria, may regulate immunological tolerance and inflammation.