Immune system and obsessive-compulsive disorder

  title={Immune system and obsessive-compulsive disorder},
  author={Donatella Marazziti and Federico Mucci and Leonardo Franklin Fontenelle},
Immunological causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: is it time for the concept of an “autoimmune OCD” subtype?
The novel concept of “autoimmune OCD” is proposed for a small subgroup of OCD patients, and clinical signs based on the PANDAS/PANS criteria and from recent experience with autoimmune encephalitis and autoimmune psychosis are suggested.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder With Rheumatological and Inflammatory Diseases: A Systematic Review
The pathophysiology and etiology of OCD are strongly correlated with inflammatory biomarkers, and this finding warrants future studies on the efficacy of anti-inflammatory agents to treat OCD, particularly in the early stages of the disease.
Immune Dysfunction in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: From Risk Factors to Multisystem Involvement
Evidence is reviewed supporting a model for immune dysfunction in OCD as multifactorial, constitutive, and environmental, contributing to illness development, clinical presentation, and multisystem impact.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: epidemiology, diagnosis and management.
Current concepts in OCD, including its epidemiology and etiologic underpinnings (behavioral, neurological, immunological, gastroenterological, as well as genetic), and the interplay of PANS and PANDAS are considered.
Association of antibody titers and 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphisms in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococci
The results suggest an association between the S allele and elevated antibody levels in PANDAS patients.
Plasma IL-6 levels in unmedicated, comorbidity free obsessive-compulsive disorder
Results in unmedicated and comorbidity-free OCD patients give a better understanding of the immune alterations in OCD, and plasma IL-6 levels did not correlate significantly with any clinical variables.
Obsessive compulsive disorder as a presenting symptom of COVID-19: A case-series from Iran
Obsessive compulsive symptoms can be the presenting manifestation of COVID-19 and the neuropsychiatric manifestations may be resulted from central nervous system infiltration, and dysregulation of inflammatory factors autoimmune responses.
Reduction in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Self-Injurious Behavior With Saccharomyces boulardii in a Child with Autism: A Case Report.
Treatment with S boulardii successfully reduced OCD and SIB symptoms in this boy with autism spectrum disorder and self-injurious behavior.


The cytokine profile of OCD: pathophysiological insights
An exhaustive review of the role of the immune system in the development of OCD is presented, with a major focus on the possible pathophysiological role of cytokines that seems to open novel treatment.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder and immunology: A review
Immunological alterations in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Immunocompetence
Adult OCD patients appear to have an increased rate of immune-related diseases above and beyond that seen in other psychiatric disorders.
Tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: Is autoimmunity involved?
Future longitudinal studies should be aimed at assessing the precise relationship between symptom exacerbations, infections, and immune parameters, possibly along with gene expression profiles, to draw any firm conclusions about a role for autoimmunity.
Searching for the Immune Basis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
The assessment of circulating cytokines and immune cells confirmed unequivocal changes in at least some patients, although it is difficult to establish a particular immune profile in OCD.
Immunology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Prevalence of anti-basal ganglia antibodies in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder: cross-sectional study.
The hypothesis that central nervous system autoimmunity may have an aetiological role in some adults with OCD is supported and exposure to streptococcal infection in vulnerable individuals is a risk factor for the development of OCD.